Estudo do processamento mnésico consciente e não consciente de palavras emocionais

Tânia Prata, Graça Esgalhado

Resumen


De acordo com a literatura não existe um único sistema mnésico, mas múltiplos sistemas. Especificamente, na Memória a Longo Prazo podem-se encontrar dois tipos de memória, a designada memória explícita ou declarativa e a memória implícita ou não declarativa. Vários estímulos (palavras, faces/fotografias/imagens ou histórias narradas) de valência emocional (neutro/positivo/negativo) têm sido utilizadas para explicar a interdependência funcional entre a memória e a emoção, sendo que à medida que se avança na idade parece aumentar a relevância do material afectivo no processamento da informação (Carstensen & Mikels, 2005). Quando associado um estado emocional depressivo, vários autores sugerem que a informação afectivamente congruente com o estado de ânimo/humor dos indivíduos é melhor recordada que a informação afectivamente incongruente (Joormann & Gotlib, 2006; Leppänen, 2006). Neste estudo procuramos avaliar o processamento mnésico consciente e não consciente de palavras emocionais. Para tal, participaram 200 idosos com idades compreendidas entre os 60 e 88 anos e foram construídas duas provas específicas (Prova de reconhecimento de palavras e Prova de completamento de bigramas). Em ambas as provas houve um melhor reconhecimento e evocação das palavras-emoções do que das palavras-envelhecimento. Apesar das hipóteses de investigação terem sido infirmadas, o conteúdo emocional dos estímulos, de certo modo, facilitou na recuperação da informação anteriormente armazenada. As diferenças encontradas quando comparados o grupo dos deprimidos e o dos não deprimidos não são estatisticamente significativas (p >.05), logo não se encontrou um efeito de congruência de humor. Por sua vez, quando utilizada a prova de memória implícita comprovou-se a existência do efeito facilitador priming, o que contribuiu para o alcance de melhores resultados nesta prova. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que quando está presente o efeito de facilitação priming e utilizado material afectivo consegue-se alcançar melhores resultados mnésicos quer em provas directas, quer indirectas.


Palabras clave


Memória explícita e implícita e emoção

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.17060/ijodaep.2014.n1.v1.393 Statistics: Resumen : 1162 views. PDF (Português (Portugal)) : 574 views.  

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